State and Territory Profile

STATE/TERRITORY PROFILE - PENNSYLVANIA

This profile highlights a current innovative effort to promote a subsidy system that is child-focused, family friendly, and fair to providers. It also provides demographic information, Early Care and Education (ECE) program participation and funding, subsidy innovation and program integrity information, program quality improvement activities, and professional development and workforce initiatives. Sources and links are provided at the end of the document.

Demographics

Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau. (2021). In American Community Survey. Single Years of Age and Sex. Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau: https://data.census.gov/table?q=ACS +Survey+&g=0100000US$0400000&tid=ACSDP1Y2021.DP05
Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau. (2023). In American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, 2022. B17024: Age By Ratio Of Income To Poverty Level In The Past 12 Months - Universe: Population for whom poverty status is determined. https://data.census.gov/table/ACSDT1Y2022.B17024?q=B17024&g=010XX00US $0400000
  Below 100% of Poverty Below 185% of Poverty
Under 6-Years Old 15.97% 33.28%
6 to 17-Years Old 14.92% 30.58%
Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau. (2023). In American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, 2022. C23008 Age of own Children under 18 Years in Families and Subfamilies by Living Arrangements by Employment Status of Parents: Universe: Own children under 18 years in families and subfamilies.
https://data.census.gov/table/ACSDT1Y2022.C23008?q=C23008&g=010XX00US $0400000

ECE Program Participation and Funding

Percentage and Number of Children/Families Served
Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Child Care. (2022). FFY 2020 CCDF data tables [Preliminary estimates]. Table 9 Average Monthly Percentages of Children In Care By Age Group https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/data/fy-2020-preliminary-data-table-9
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Child Care. (2022). FFY 2020 CCDF data tables [Preliminary estimates].Table 1 Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Families and Children Served.
    https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/data/fy-2020-preliminary-data-table-1
  • Average Monthly Percentages of Children Served in All Types of Care
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Child Care. (2022). FFY 2020 CCDF data tables [Preliminary estimates]. Table 6 Average Monthly
    https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/data/fy-2020-preliminary-data-table-6
    Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)
    • Total CCDF Expenditure (Including Quality):
    $643,183,607
    • CCDF Federal Expenditure:
    $440,958,901
    • CCDF State/Territory Expenditure:
    $97,878,406
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2023). CCDF Expenditures for FY 2021 (all appropriation years). Table 4a: All expenditures by State- Categorical Summary. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/data/table-4a-all-expenditures-state-categorical-summary-fy-2021

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2023). CCDF Expenditures for FY 2020 (all appropriation years). Table 3a - All Expenditures by State – Detailed Summary. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/data/table-3a-all-expenditures-state-detailed-summary-fy-2020
    CCDF Quality Expenditures
    • Total Quality Expenditure:
    $67,320,656
    • Quality Activities (Set Aside Funds):
    $67,320,656
    • Infant and Toddler (Targeted Funds):
    Not available
    • Quality Expansion Funds (Targeted Funds):
    Not available
    • School-Age/Resource and Referral (Targeted Funds):
    Not available
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) for Child Care
    • TANF – Total Child Care Expenditure:
    $208,215,275
    Bullet icon TANF – Direct Expenditure on Child Care: $58,602,775
    Bullet icon TANF – Transfer to CCDF: $149,612,500
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance. (2021). Fiscal Year 2021 TANF Financial Data. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ofa/data/tanf-financial-data-fy-2021
    ChildCare Tax Credits
    • Tax Credit Federal Total Amount Claimed:
    $101,122
    • Tax Credit Federal Number of Claims:
    189,420
    • State/Territory Tax Credit Available - 2019:
    No
    • State/Territory Tax Credit Refundable:
    No
    Source(s): Internal Revenue Service. (2022). SOI Tax Stats - Historic Table 2, Tax Year 2020. http://www.irs.gov/uac/SOI-Tax-Stats-Historic-Table-2
    National Women’s Law Center. (2023). States Can Make Care Less Taxing: Tax Credits Related to Child Care, Tax Year 2022. https://nwlc.org/resource/states-can-make-care-less-taxing-tax-credits-related-to-child-care-tax-year-2022/
    Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)
    • CACFP Funding:
    $120,812,611
    • Number of Family Child Care Homes Participating:
    1,173
    • Number of Child Care Centers (includes Head Start Programs) Participating:
    3,516
    Source(s): Food Research and Action Center. (2020). State of the States: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) in FY 2019. http://www.frac.org/maps/sos/tables/sos_tab_cacfp.html
    Head Start
    • Head Start Federal Allocation:
    $269,662,571
    • Head Start State/Territory Allocation:
    $68,940,473
    • Number of Children Participating:
    22,176
    Source(s): National Institute for Early Education Research. (2023). The 2022 state of preschool yearbook. https://nieer.org/the-state-of-preschool-yearbook-2022
    IDEA Part B, Section 619
    • IDEA Part B Funding:
    $15,004,510
    • Number of Children Served (Ages 3- through 5-Years-Old):
    28,317
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Education. (2023). Fiscal Years 2022-2024 State Tables for the U.S. Department of Education. https://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/budget/statetables/index.html
    IDEA Part C
    • IDEA Part C Funding:
    $16,640,800
    • Number of Children Served (Ages Birth through 2-Years-Old):
    22,511
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Education. (2023). Fiscal Years 2022-2024 State Tables for the U.S. Department of Education. https://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/budget/statetables/index.html
    Pre-kindergarten
    • Pre-kindergarten Total Expenditure:
    $351,710,037
    • Enrollment (4-year-olds and under):
    42,592
    Note: Total Expenditure includes all State/Territory, Local, and Federal dollars. In addition to 3 and 4-year-olds, some Pre-kindergarten programs enroll children of other ages.
    Source(s): National Institute for Early Education Research. (2023). The 2022 state of preschool yearbook. https://nieer.org/the-state-of-preschool-yearbook-2022

    CCDF Subsidy Program Administration

    Income Eligibility at Determination
    (a) (b) (c) (d)
    Family Size 100 % of SMI ($/Month) 85% of SMI($/Month)
    [Multiply(a) by 0.85]
    (IF APPLICABLE) ($/Month) Maximum Initial or First Tier Income Limit (or Threshold) if Lower Than 85% of Current SMI IF APPLICABLE) (% of SMI) [Divide(c) by (a), multiply by 100] Income Level if Lower Than 85% of Current SMI
    3 $6,045.00 $5,138.00 $3,463.00 1%
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 3.1.3 Family Size of 3: Eligible Children and Families - Income Eligibility at Determination. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Approaches Used for Promoting Continuity of Care
    • Coordinating with Head Start, prekindergarten, or other early learning programs to create a package of arrangements that accommodates parents’ work schedules
    Yes
    • Inquiring about whether the child has an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or Individual Family Services Plan (IFSP)
    Yes
    • Establishing minimum eligibility periods greater than 12 months
    Yes
    • Using cross-enrollment or referrals to other public benefits
    Yes
    • Working with IDEA Part B, Section 619 and Part C staff to explore how services included in a child’s IEP or IFSP can be supported and/or provided onsite and in collaboration with child care services
    Not available
    • Providing more intensive case management for families with children with multiple risk factors;
    Not available
    • Implementing policies and procedures that promote universal design to ensure that activities and environments are accessible to all children, including children with sensory, physical, or other disabilities
    Not available
    • Other:
    Not available
    Not available
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Reports 3.1.6 and 3.1.6-2: Eligible Children and Families - Approaches Used for Promoting Continuity of Care. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Increasing Access for Vulnerable Children and Families
    Children with Special Needs
    • Prioritize for enrollment
    Not available
    • Serve without placing these populations on waiting lists
    Not available
    • Waive co-payments
    Not available
    • Pay higher rates for access to higher quality care
    Not available
    • Use grants or contracts to reserve slots for priority populations
    Not available
    • Other:
    Described Below
    Children with a developmental delay are paid at the developmental age, not the chronological age. This payment is usually higher.
    Families with Very Low Incomes
    • Prioritize for enrollment
    Yes
    • Serve without placing these populations on waiting lists
    Yes
    • Waive co-payments
    Yes
    • Pay higher rates for access to higher quality care
    Not available
    • Use grants or contracts to reserve slots for priority populations
    Not available
    • Other:
    Not available
    Not available
    Children Experiencing Homelessness
    • Prioritize for enrollment
    Yes
    • Serve without placing these populations on waiting lists
    Not available
    • Waive co-payments
    Yes
    • Pay higher rates for access to higher quality care
    Not available
    • Use grants or contracts to reserve slots for priority populations
    Not available
    • Other:
    Not available
    Not available
    Families Receiving TANF*
    • Prioritize for enrollment
    Yes
    • Serve without placing these populations on waiting lists
    Yes
    • Waive co-payments
    Yes
    • Pay higher rates for access to higher quality care
    Not available
    • Use grants or contracts to reserve slots for priority populations
    Not available
    • Other:
    Not available
    Not available
    * Includes families receiving TANF program funds, those transitioning off TANF through work activities, or those at risk of becoming dependent on TANF.
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Reports 3.2.2a, 3.2.2b, 3.2.2c, 3.2.2d, 3.2.2a-2, 3.2.2b-2, 3.2.2c-2, and 3.2.2d-2: Increasing Access for Vulnerable Children and Families. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Use of Grants or Contracts to Increase the Supply of Specific Types of Child Care
    • Programs to serve children with disabilities
    Not available
    • Programs to serve infants and toddlers
    Yes
    • Programs to serve school-age children
    Not available
    • Programs to serve children needing non-traditional hour care
    Not available
    • Programs to serve children experiencing homelessness
    Not available
    • Programs to serve children in underserved areas
    Not available
    • Programs that serve children with diverse linguistic or cultural backgrounds
    Not available
    • Programs that serve specific geographic areas (urban)
    Not available
    • Programs that serve specific geographic areas (rural)
    Not available
    • Other:
    Not available
    Not available
    Use of Grants or Contracts to Increase the Quality of Specific Types of Child Care
    • Programs to serve children with disabilities
    Not available
    • Programs to serve infants and toddlers
    Yes
    • Programs to serve school-age children
    Not available
    • Programs to serve children needing non-traditional hour care
    Not available
    • Programs to serve children experiencing homelessness
    Not available
    • Programs to serve children in underserved areas
    Not available
    • Programs that serve children with diverse linguistic or cultural backgrounds
    Not available
    • Programs that serve specific geographic areas (urban)
    Not available
    • Programs that serve specific geographic areas (rural)
    Not available
    • Other:
    Not available
    Not available
    Base payment rates and percentiles
    Age Center Percentile of most recent MRS Family Child Care Percentile of most recent MRS
    Infant $ 213.45/ week 17.9 percent $ 172.45/ week 14.4 percent
    Toddler $ 208.39/ week 29.2 percent $ 157.10/ week 13.3 percent
    Preschool $ 167.35/ week 17.3 percent $ 142.75/ week 15.1 percent
    School Age $ 138.65/ week 26.5 percent $ 131.45/ week 24.5 percent
    Effective date of payment rates: 2007
    Market rate survey (MRS) date: 9/30/2016
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 4.3.1: Setting Payment Rates. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 4.2.5a: Setting Payment Rates. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Tiered Reimbursement or Differential Rates
    • Differential rate for non-traditional hours. Describe
    Not available
    • Differential rate for children with special needs, as defined by the state/territory.
    Not available
    • Differential rate for infants and toddlers. Note: Do not check if the Lead Agency has a different base rate for infants/toddlers with no separate bonus or add-on
    Yes
    • Differential rate for school-age programs. Note: Do not check if the Lead Agency has a different base rate for school-age children with no separate bonus or add-on.
    Yes
    • Differential rate for higher quality, as defined by the state/territory.
    Yes
    • Other differential rates or tiered rates.
    Not available
    • Tiered or differential rates are not implemented.
    Not available
    CCDF Co-Payments by Family Size
    (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
    Family Size Lowest “Entry” Income Level Where Family Is First Charged Co-Pay (Greater Than $0) What Is the Monthly Co-Payment for a Family of This Size Based on the Income Level in (a)? The Co-Payment in Column (b) is What Percentage of the Income in Column (a)? Highest “Entry” Income Level Before a Family Is No Longer Eligible What Is the Monthly Co-Payment for a Family of This Size Based on the Income Level in (d)? The Co-Payment in Column (e) is What Percentage of the Income in Column (d)?
    3 $1.00 $21.65 Not available $40,840.00 $342.00 10.00%
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 3.4.1a Family Size of 3: Family Contribution to Payment - CCDF Co-Payments by Family Size. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Family Contribution to Payment
    • No, the Lead Agency does not waive family contributions/co-payments.
    Not available
    • Yes, the Lead Agency waives family contributions/co-payments for families with an income at or below the Federal poverty level for families of the same size.
    Not available
    • Yes, the Lead Agency waives family contributions/co-payments for families who are receiving or needing to receive protective services, as determined by the Lead Agency for purposes of CCDF eligibility. Describe the policy and provide the policy citation..
    Not available
    • Describe contributions/co-payments for families who are receiving or needing to receive protective services
    Not available
    • Yes, the Lead Agency waives family contributions/co-payments for other criteria established by the Lead Agency. Describe the policy and provide the policy citation
    Yes
    • Describe:
    Described Below
    Foster parents’ income is waived and they are charged the lowest co-pay ($5/week).
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 3.4.4: Family Contribution to Payment - Family Contribution to Payment. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.

    Health and Safety

    Child-Staff Ratios by Group Size by Age of Children for Licensed Child Care Centers
    Age of Children Child-Staff Ratio Group Size
    Infant (11 months) 4:1 8
    Toddler (35 months) 6:1 12
    Preschool (59months) 10:1 20
    School-age (6 years) 12:1 24
    School-age (10 years and older) 15:1 30
    If any of the responses above are different for exempt child care centers, describe which requirements apply: Described Below
    N/A. Child care centers are not exempted.
    Source(s): National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance. (2021). 2020 Child Care Licensing Study: Analysis of child care licensing regulations. [Unpublished data].

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 5.2.1a-5_6_7: Standards on ratios, group sizes, and qualifications for CCDF providers.– exempt child care centers. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.

    Quality Improvement

    Use of Quality Funds
    Yes/No CCDF Funds Other Funds Other (describe)
    Supporting the training and professional development of the child care workforce Yes Yes Not available Not available
    Developing, maintaining, or implementing early learning and developmental guidelines Yes Yes Not available Not available
    Developing, implementing, or enhancing a tiered quality rating and improvement system Yes Yes Not available Not available
    Improving the supply and quality of child care services for infants and toddlers Yes Yes Not available Not available
    Establishing or expanding a statewide system of CCR&R services Yes Yes Not available Not available
    Facilitating compliance with state/territory requirements for inspection, monitoring, training, and health and safety standards Not available Not available Not available Not available
    Evaluating and assessing the quality and effectiveness of child care services within the state/territorys Yes Yes Not available Not available
    Supporting accreditation Yes Yes Not available Not available
    Supporting state/territory or local efforts to develop high-quality program standards relating to health, mental health, nutrition, physical activity, and physical development Yes Yes Yes Not available
    Other activities determined by the state/territory to improve the quality of child care services and which measurement of outcomes related to improved provider preparedness, child safety, child well-being, or kindergarten entry is possible Yes Not available Yes Described Below
    Use of Quality Funds - Continued
    Other (describe)
    Supporting the training and professional development of the child care workforce Not available
    Developing, maintaining, or implementing early learning and developmental guidelines Not available
    Developing, implementing, or enhancing a tiered quality rating and improvement system Not available
    Improving the supply and quality of child care services for infants and toddlers Not available
    Facilitating compliance with state/territory requirements for inspection, monitoring, training, and health and safety standards Not available
    Evaluating and assessing the quality and effectiveness of child care services within the state/territorys Not available
    Supporting accreditation Not available
    Supporting state/territory or local efforts to develop high-quality program standards relating to health, mental health, nutrition, physical activity, and physical development Not available
    Other activities determined by the state/territory to improve the quality of child care services and which measurement of outcomes related to improved provider preparedness, child safety, child well-being, or kindergarten entry is possible Described Below
    Source(s):
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Reports 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-1: Use of Quality Funds - Supporting the training and professional development of the child care workforce. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-2: Use of Quality Funds - Developing, maintaining, or implementing early learning and developmental guidelines. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-3: Use of Quality Funds - Developing, implementing, or enhancing a tiered quality rating and improvement system. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-4: Use of Quality Funds - Improving the supply and quality of child care services for infants and toddlers. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-5: Use of Quality Funds - Establishing or expanding a statewide system of CCR&R services. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-6: Use of Quality Funds - Facilitating compliance with state/territory requirements for inspection, monitoring, training, and health and safety standards. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-7: Use of Quality Funds - Evaluating and assessing the quality and effectiveness of child care services within the state/territory. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-8: Use of Quality Funds - Supporting accreditation. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-9: Use of Quality Funds - Supporting state/territory or local efforts to develop high-quality program standards relating to health, mental health, nutrition, physical activity, and physical development. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-10: Use of Quality Funds - Other activities determined by the state/territory to improve the quality of child care services and which measurement of outcomes related to improved provider preparedness, child safety, child well-being, or kindergarten entry is possible. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Outreach to Families with Limited English Proficiency
    Application in other languages (application document, brochures, provider notices) Yes
    Informational materials in non-English languages Yes
    Website in non-English languages Yes
    Lead Agency accepts applications at local community-based locations Not available
    Bilingual caseworkers or translators available Not available
    Bilingual outreach workers Not available
    Partnerships with community-based organizations Yes
    Other Not available
    Describe Other: Not available
    Not available
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 2.1.1-1 and 2.1.1-2: Outreach to Families with Limited English Proficiency - Strategies the Lead Agency or partners utilize to provide outreach and services to eligible families for whom English is not their first language. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Outreach to Families with a Person(s) with Disabilities
    Applications and public informational materials available in Braille and other communication formats for access by individuals with disabilities Not available
    Websites that are accessible (e.g., Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act) Yes
    Caseworkers with specialized training/experience in working with individuals with disabilities Not available
    Ensuring accessibility of environments and activities for all children Not available
    Partnerships with state and local programs and associations focused on disability-related topics and issues Yes
    Partnerships with parent associations, support groups, and parent-to-parent support groups, including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) federally funded Parent Training and Information Centers Yes
    Partnerships with state and local IDEA Part B, Section 619 and Part C providers and agencies Yes
    Availability and/or access to specialized services (e.g., mental health, behavioral specialists, therapists) to address the needs of all children Yes
    Other Not available
    Describe Other: Not available
    Not available
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 2.1.2-1 and 2.1.2-2: Outreach to Families with Limited English Proficiency - Strategies the Lead Agency or partners utilize to provide outreach and services to eligible families with a person(s) with a disability. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Consumer Education Website
    How the Lead Agency ensures that its website is consumer-friendly and easily accessible Pennsylvania’s provider search website, www.findchildcare.pa.gov, allows consumers to search for early learning providers in multiple ways including provider name, distance from a specific address, by county, and by municipality. Consumers can also filter using a variety of criteria such as STARS rating, hours of operations, provider type, and languages spoken/taught. The website provides tool tips that offer additional information and explanation, as needed, as well as frequently asked questions. There is the ability for the consumer to create both summary and detailed reports, in PDF or EXCEL, that include providers that meet specific criteria. Information about the provider’s licensing history is written in clear, understandable language. The website is available in both English and Spanish, is ADA compliant and mobile friendly.
    How the website ensures the widest possible access to services for families that speak languages other than English The provider search website is part of the COMPASS website which is available in Spanish and has an instructional tagline in a variety of different languages, including Vietnamese, Russian, and Cambodian.
    How the website ensures the widest possible access to services for persons with disabilities The provider search website is compliant with requirements of the ADA. The online application offers TTY/TTD numbers that are toll-free for persons that are hearing impaired. The online application is mobile-friendly.
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 2.3.1, 2.3.1, and 2.3.3: Consumer Education Website. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.

    Footnotes

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