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State and Territory Profile

STATE/TERRITORY PROFILE - PENNSYLVANIA

This profile highlights a current innovative effort to promote a subsidy system that is child-focused, family friendly, and fair to providers. It also provides demographic information, Early Care and Education (ECE) program participation and funding, subsidy innovation and program integrity information, program quality improvement activities, and professional development and workforce initiatives. Sources and links are provided at the end of the document

Demographics

Total Population 12 and Under
Total Population 12 and Under. Under 3-Years Old: Total 432581, Percentage 22; 3 and 4-Years Old: Total 296957 Percentage 15; 5 through 12-Years Old: Total 1223373 Percentage 63
Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). In American Community Survey, 2010. QT-P2 Single Years of Age and Sex. Retrieved from American FactFinder: http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_SF1_QTP2&prodType=table
Children Living in Working Families
Children Living in Working Families: Children under 6-Years-Old Living in Working Families with one working parent 0.279429730182256 and with two working parents 0.42820838785293; Children Ages 6 to 17-Years Old Living in Working Families with one working parent 0.289766064925311 and with two working parents 0.462239690810668
Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). In American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, 2018. B17024: Age By Ratio Of Income To Poverty Level In The Past 12 Months - Universe: Population for whom poverty status is determined. https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?q=B17024&g=0100000US.04000.001&hidePreview=true&table=B17024&tid=ACSDT1Y2018.B17024&lastDisplayedRow=17&vintage=2018&mode=&y=2018
Poverty Statistics
Poverty Statistics: 0.354025331481432 are Under 6-Years Old and living Below 185% of Poverty; 0.177551452291242 are Under 6-Years Old and living Below 100% of Poverty; 0.327180060665698 are 6 to 17-Years Old and living Below 185% of Poverty; 0.162920574879707 are 6 to 17-Years Old and living Below 100% of Poverty
  Below 100% of Poverty Below 185% of Poverty
Under 6-Years Old 17.76% 35.4%
6 to 17-Years Old 16.29% 32.72%
Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). In American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, 2018. C23008 Age of own Children under 18 Years in Families and Subfamilies by Living Arrangements by Employment Status of Parents: Universe: Own children under 18 years in families and subfamilies.
https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?q=C23008&g=&hidePreview=false&table=C23008&tid=ACSDT1Y2018.C23008&lastDisplayedRow=17&vintage=2018

ECE Program Participation and Funding

Percentage and Number of Children/Families Served
CCDF Average Monthly Percentage
of Children in Care By Age Group
CCDF Average Monthly Percentage<br>of Children in Care By Age Group. Under 3-Years Old: 25%; 3 and 4-Years Old: 25%; 5 through 12-Years Old: 50%
CCDF Average Monthly Number
of Children and Families Served
Average Monthly number of Children and Families Served: Children 99700 and Families 58000
Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Child Care. (2019). FFY 2018 CCDF data tables [Preliminary estimates]. Table 9 Average Monthly Percentages of Children In Care By Age Group https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/resource/fy-2018-ccdf-data-tables-preliminary
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Child Care. (2019). FFY 2018 CCDF data tables [Preliminary estimates].Table 1 Average Monthly Adjusted Number of Families and Children Served.
    https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/resource/fy-2018-ccdf-data-tables-preliminary
  • Average Monthly Percentages of Children Served in All Types of Care
    Licensed Providers
    Average Monthly Percentages of Children Served in All Types of Care - Licensed or Regulated Providers: Center 84%, Group Home 4%, Family Home 5%, Child's Home 5%
    Non-Licensed Providers
    Average Monthly Percentages of Children Served in All Types of Care - Legally Operating Without Regulations: Center 0%, Group Home 0%, Family Home 6%, Child's Home 6%
    Note: Unregulated provider data includes relative and non-relative care.
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Child Care. (2019). FFY 2018 CCDF data tables [Preliminary estimates]. Table 6 Average Monthly Percentages of Children Served in All Types of Care.
    https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/resource/fy-2018-ccdf-data-tables-preliminary
    Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)
    • Total CCDF Expenditure (Including Quality):
    $455,540,233
    • CCDF Federal Expenditure:
    $350,945,030
    • CCDF State/Territory Expenditure:
    $104,595,203
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2020). CCDF Expenditures for FY 2018 (all appropriation years). Table 4a: All expenditures by State- Categorical Summary. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/resource/fy-2018-ccdf-table-4a

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2020). CCDF Expenditures for FY 2018 (all appropriation years). Table 3a - All Expenditures by State – Detailed Summary. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/resource/fy-2018-ccdf-table-3a
    CCDF Quality Expenditures
    • Total Quality Expenditure:
    $50,242,532
    • Quality Activities (Set Aside Funds):
    $50,242,532
    • Infant and Toddler (Targeted Funds):
    • Quality Expansion Funds (Targeted Funds):
    • School-Age/Resource and Referral (Targeted Funds):
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) for Child Care
    • TANF – Total Child Care Expenditure:
    $261,511,938
    Bullet icon TANF – Direct Expenditure on Child Care: $77,351,451
    Bullet icon TANF – Transfer to CCDF: 184160487
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance. (2019). Fiscal Year 2018 TANF Financial Data. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ofa/resource/tanf-financial-data-fy-2018
    ChildCare Tax Credits
    • Tax Credit Federal Total Amount Claimed:
    $1,023,276,000
    • Tax Credit Federal Number of Claims:
    823,400
    • State/Territory Tax Credit Available - 2015:
    No
    • State/Territory Tax Credit Refundable:
    No
    Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)
    • CACFP Funding:
    $120,812,611
    • Number of Family Child Care Homes Participating:
    1,173
    • Number of Child Care Centers (includes Head Start Programs) Participating:
    3,516
    Source(s): Food Research and Action Center. (2020). State of the States: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) in FY 2019. http://www.frac.org/maps/sos/tables/sos_tab_cacfp.html
    Head Start
    • Head Start Federal Allocation:
    $253,323,698
    • Head Start State/Territory Allocation:
    59177799
    • Number of Children Participating:
    30,320
    Source(s): National Institute for Early Education Research. (2020). The 2019 state of preschool yearbook. http://nieer.org/state-preschool-yearbooks/2019-2
    IDEA Part B, Section 619
    • IDEA Part B Funding:
    $14,289,103
    • Number of Children Served (Ages 3- through 5-Years-Old):
    37,012
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Education. (2019). Fiscal Years 2019-2021 State Tables for the U.S. Department of Education. https://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/budget/statetables/index.html
    IDEA Part C
    • IDEA Part C Funding:
    $15,695,827
    • Number of Children Served (Ages Birth through 2-Years-Old):
    22,213
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Education. (2019). Fiscal Years 2019-2021 State Tables for the U.S. Department of Education. https://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/budget/statetables/index.html
    Pre-kindergarten
    • Pre-kindergarten Total Expenditure:
    $293,749,908
    • Enrollment (4-year-olds and under):
    42,867
    Note: Total Expenditure includes all State/Territory, Local, and Federal dollars. In addition to 3 and 4-year-olds, some Pre-kindergarten programs enroll children of other ages.
    Source(s): National Institute for Early Education Research. (2020). The 2019 state of preschool yearbook. http://nieer.org/state-preschool-yearbooks/2019-2

    CCDF Subsidy Program Administration

    Income Eligibility at Determination
    (a) (b) (c) (d)
    Family Size 100 % of SMI ($/Month) 85% of SMI($/Month)
    [Multiply(a) by 0.85]
    (IF APPLICABLE) ($/Month) Maximum Initial or First Tier Income Limit (or Threshold) if Lower Than 85% of Current SMI IF APPLICABLE) (% of SMI) [Divide(c) by (a), multiply by 100] Income Level if Lower Than 85% of Current SMI
    3 $6,045.00 $5,138.00 $3,463.00 1%
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 3.1.3 Family Size of 3: Eligible Children and Families - Income Eligibility at Determination. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Approaches Used for Promoting Continuity of Care
    • Coordinating with Head Start, prekindergarten, or other early learning programs to create a package of arrangements that accommodates parents’ work schedules
    Yes
    • Inquiring about whether the child has an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or Individual Family Services Plan (IFSP)
    Yes
    • Establishing minimum eligibility periods greater than 12 months
    Yes
    • Using cross-enrollment or referrals to other public benefits
    Yes
    • Working with IDEA Part B, Section 619 and Part C staff to explore how services included in a child’s IEP or IFSP can be supported and/or provided onsite and in collaboration with child care services
    • Providing more intensive case management for families with children with multiple risk factors;
    • Implementing policies and procedures that promote universal design to ensure that activities and environments are accessible to all children, including children with sensory, physical, or other disabilities
    • Other:
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Reports 3.1.6 and 3.1.6-2: Eligible Children and Families - Approaches Used for Promoting Continuity of Care. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Increasing Access for Vulnerable Children and Families
    Children with Special Needs
    • Prioritize for enrollment
    • Serve without placing these populations on waiting lists
    • Waive co-payments
    • Pay higher rates for access to higher quality care
    • Use grants or contracts to reserve slots for priority populations
    • Other:
    Children with a developmental delay are paid at the developmental age, not the chronological age. This payment is usually higher.
    Families with Very Low Incomes
    • Prioritize for enrollment
    Yes
    • Serve without placing these populations on waiting lists
    Yes
    • Waive co-payments
    Yes
    • Pay higher rates for access to higher quality care
    • Use grants or contracts to reserve slots for priority populations
    • Other:
    Children Experiencing Homelessness
    • Prioritize for enrollment
    Yes
    • Serve without placing these populations on waiting lists
    • Waive co-payments
    Yes
    • Pay higher rates for access to higher quality care
    • Use grants or contracts to reserve slots for priority populations
    • Other:
    Families Receiving TANF*
    • Prioritize for enrollment
    Yes
    • Serve without placing these populations on waiting lists
    Yes
    • Waive co-payments
    Yes
    • Pay higher rates for access to higher quality care
    • Use grants or contracts to reserve slots for priority populations
    • Other:
    * Includes families receiving TANF program funds, those transitioning off TANF through work activities, or those at risk of becoming dependent on TANF.
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Reports 3.2.2a, 3.2.2b, 3.2.2c, 3.2.2d, 3.2.2a-2, 3.2.2b-2, 3.2.2c-2, and 3.2.2d-2: Increasing Access for Vulnerable Children and Families. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Use of Grants or Contracts to Increase the Supply of Specific Types of Child Care
    • Programs to serve children with disabilities
    • Programs to serve infants and toddlers
    Yes
    • Programs to serve school-age children
    • Programs to serve children needing non-traditional hour care
    • Programs to serve children experiencing homelessness
    • Programs to serve children in underserved areas
    • Programs that serve children with diverse linguistic or cultural backgrounds
    • Programs that serve specific geographic areas (urban)
    • Programs that serve specific geographic areas (rural)
    • Other:
    Use of Grants or Contracts to Increase the Quality of Specific Types of Child Care
    • Programs to serve children with disabilities
    • Programs to serve infants and toddlers
    Yes
    • Programs to serve school-age children
    • Programs to serve children needing non-traditional hour care
    • Programs to serve children experiencing homelessness
    • Programs to serve children in underserved areas
    • Programs that serve children with diverse linguistic or cultural backgrounds
    • Programs that serve specific geographic areas (urban)
    • Programs that serve specific geographic areas (rural)
    • Other:
    Base payment rates and percentiles
    Age Center Percentile of most recent MRS Family Child Care Percentile of most recent MRS
    Infant $ 213.45/ week 17.9 percent $ 172.45/ week 14.4 percent
    Toddler $ 208.39/ week 29.2 percent $ 157.10/ week 13.3 percent
    Preschool $ 167.35/ week 17.3 percent $ 142.75/ week 15.1 percent
    School Age $ 138.65/ week 26.5 percent $ 131.45/ week 24.5 percent
    Effective date of payment rates: 2007
    Market rate survey (MRS) date: 9/30/2016
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 4.3.1: Setting Payment Rates. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 4.2.5a: Setting Payment Rates. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Tiered Reimbursement or Differential Rates
    • Differential rate for non-traditional hours. Describe
    • Differential rate for children with special needs, as defined by the state/territory.
    • Differential rate for infants and toddlers. Note: Do not check if the Lead Agency has a different base rate for infants/toddlers with no separate bonus or add-on
    Yes
    • Differential rate for school-age programs. Note: Do not check if the Lead Agency has a different base rate for school-age children with no separate bonus or add-on.
    Yes
    • Differential rate for higher quality, as defined by the state/territory.
    Yes
    • Other differential rates or tiered rates.
    • Tiered or differential rates are not implemented.
    CCDF Co-Payemts by Family Size
    CCDF Co-Payments by Family Size
    (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
    Family Size Lowest “Entry” Income Level Where Family Is First Charged Co-Pay (Greater Than $0) What Is the Monthly Co-Payment for a Family of This Size Based on the Income Level in (a)? The Co-Payment in Column (b) is What Percentage of the Income in Column (a)? Highest “Entry” Income Level Before a Family Is No Longer Eligible What Is the Monthly Co-Payment for a Family of This Size Based on the Income Level in (d)? The Co-Payment in Column (e) is What Percentage of the Income in Column (d)?
    3 $1.00 $21.65 $40,840.00 $342.00 10
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 3.4.1a Family Size of 3: Family Contribution to Payment - CCDF Co-Payments by Family Size. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Family Contribution to Payment
    • No, the Lead Agency does not waive family contributions/co-payments.
    • Yes, the Lead Agency waives family contributions/co-payments for families with an income at or below the Federal poverty level for families of the same size.
    • Yes, the Lead Agency waives family contributions/co-payments for families who are receiving or needing to receive protective services, as determined by the Lead Agency for purposes of CCDF eligibility. Describe the policy and provide the policy citation..
    • Describe contributions/co-payments for families who are receiving or needing to receive protective services
    • Yes, the Lead Agency waives family contributions/co-payments for other criteria established by the Lead Agency. Describe the policy and provide the policy citation
    Yes
    • Describe:
    Foster parents’ income is waived and they are charged the lowest co-pay ($5/week).
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 3.4.4: Family Contribution to Payment - Family Contribution to Payment. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.

    Health and Safety

    Child-Staff Ratios by Group Size by Age of Children for Licensed Child Care Centers
    Age of Children Child-Staff Ratio Group Size
    Infant (11 months) 4:1 8
    Toddler (35 months) 6:1 12
    Preschool (59months) 10:1 20
    School-age (6 years) 12:1 24
    School-age (10 years and older) 15:1 30
    If any of the responses above are different for exempt child care centers, describe which requirements apply: N/A. Child care centers are not exempted.
    Source(s): National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance. (2020). 2017 Child Care Licensing Study: Analysis of child care licensing regulations. [Unpublished data].

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 5.2.1a-5_6_7: Standards on ratios, group sizes, and qualifications for CCDF providers.– exempt child care centers. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.

    Quality Improvement

    Use of Quality Funds
    Yes/No CCDF Funds Other Funds Other (describe)
    Supporting the training and professional development of the child care workforce Yes Yes
    Developing, maintaining, or implementing early learning and developmental guidelines Yes Yes
    Developing, implementing, or enhancing a tiered quality rating and improvement system Yes Yes
    Improving the supply and quality of child care services for infants and toddlers Yes Yes
    Establishing or expanding a statewide system of CCR&R services Yes Yes
    Facilitating compliance with state/territory requirements for inspection, monitoring, training, and health and safety standards
    Evaluating and assessing the quality and effectiveness of child care services within the state/territorys Yes Yes Not available Not available
    Supporting accreditation Yes Yes
    Supporting state/territory or local efforts to develop high-quality program standards relating to health, mental health, nutrition, physical activity, and physical development Yes Yes
    Other activities determined by the state/territory to improve the quality of child care services and which measurement of outcomes related to improved provider preparedness, child safety, child well-being, or kindergarten entry is possible Yes Yes Anticipate funds through Pennsylvania’s Department of Education to continue the support of the Kindergarten Entry Inventory database.
    Source(s):
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Reports 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-1: Use of Quality Funds - Supporting the training and professional development of the child care workforce. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-2: Use of Quality Funds - Developing, maintaining, or implementing early learning and developmental guidelines. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-3: Use of Quality Funds - Developing, implementing, or enhancing a tiered quality rating and improvement system. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-4: Use of Quality Funds - Improving the supply and quality of child care services for infants and toddlers. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-5: Use of Quality Funds - Establishing or expanding a statewide system of CCR&R services. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-6: Use of Quality Funds - Facilitating compliance with state/territory requirements for inspection, monitoring, training, and health and safety standards. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-7: Use of Quality Funds - Evaluating and assessing the quality and effectiveness of child care services within the state/territory. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-8: Use of Quality Funds - Supporting accreditation. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-9: Use of Quality Funds - Supporting state/territory or local efforts to develop high-quality program standards relating to health, mental health, nutrition, physical activity, and physical development. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 7.2.1 and 7.2.1-10: Use of Quality Funds - Other activities determined by the state/territory to improve the quality of child care services and which measurement of outcomes related to improved provider preparedness, child safety, child well-being, or kindergarten entry is possible. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Outreach to Families with Limited English Proficiency
    Application in other languages (application document, brochures, provider notices) Yes
    Informational materials in non-English languages Yes
    Website in non-English languages Yes
    Lead Agency accepts applications at local community-based locations
    Bilingual caseworkers or translators available Yes
    Bilingual outreach workers
    Partnerships with community-based organizations Yes
    Other
    Describe Other:
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 2.1.1-1 and 2.1.1-2: Outreach to Families with Limited English Proficiency - Strategies the Lead Agency or partners utilize to provide outreach and services to eligible families for whom English is not their first language. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Outreach to Families with a Person(s) with Disabilities
    Applications and public informational materials available in Braille and other communication formats for access by individuals with disabilities
    Websites that are accessible (e.g., Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act) Yes
    Caseworkers with specialized training/experience in working with individuals with disabilities
    Ensuring accessibility of environments and activities for all children
    Partnerships with state and local programs and associations focused on disability-related topics and issues Yes
    Partnerships with parent associations, support groups, and parent-to-parent support groups, including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) federally funded Parent Training and Information Centers Yes
    Partnerships with state and local IDEA Part B, Section 619 and Part C providers and agencies Yes
    Availability and/or access to specialized services (e.g., mental health, behavioral specialists, therapists) to address the needs of all children Yes
    Other
    Describe Other:
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 2.1.2-1 and 2.1.2-2: Outreach to Families with Limited English Proficiency - Strategies the Lead Agency or partners utilize to provide outreach and services to eligible families with a person(s) with a disability. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.
    Consumer Education Website
    How the Lead Agency ensures that its website is consumer-friendly and easily accessible Pennsylvania’s provider search website, www.findchildcare.pa.gov, allows consumers to search for early learning providers in multiple ways including provider name, distance from a specific address, by county, and by municipality. Consumers can also filter using a variety of criteria such as STARS rating, hours of operations, provider type, and languages spoken/taught. The website provides tool tips that offer additional information and explanation, as needed, as well as frequently asked questions. There is the ability for the consumer to create both summary and detailed reports, in PDF or EXCEL, that include providers that meet specific criteria. Information about the provider’s licensing history is written in clear, understandable language. The website is available in both English and Spanish, is ADA compliant and mobile friendly.
    How the website ensures the widest possible access to services for families that speak languages other than English The provider search website is part of the COMPASS website which is available in Spanish and has an instructional tagline in a variety of different languages, including Vietnamese, Russian, and Cambodian.
    How the website ensures the widest possible access to services for persons with disabilities The provider search website is compliant with requirements of the ADA. The online application offers TTY/TTD numbers that are toll-free for persons that are hearing impaired. The online application is mobile-friendly.
    Source(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Care. (2019). Report 2.3.1, 2.3.1, and 2.3.3: Consumer Education Website. ACF-118 Data Submission Center.

    Footnotes

    Click to show footnotes