State Examples

This section includes examples from States and Territories about innovative and effective ways to build the supply of infant and toddler child care centers and homes.

Contracts for Slots

woman reading a book to a childForty-three States and Territories are using grants or contracts to enhance the supply of child care and increase the quality of their programs. Specific examples are as follows:

  • Eight States serve children with special needs
  • Six States provide services in specific geographical areas
  • Nine States offer integrated care or wrap-around services (e.g., Early Head Start, Head Start, preschool)
  • Nine States serve infants and toddlers (National Center on Child Care Subsidy Innovation and Accountability, 2015).

Vermont engages 15 parent child centers to focus on children with high-risk factors in targeted neighborhoods. These centers offer a variety of services in addition to child care, including home visiting, early intervention or referrals, health and mental health, and parent education (Department for Children and Families, 2016).

Adjusting Reimbursement Rates to Increase Supply

children washing baby dollsDelaware found that its reimbursement rates, particularly for infant and toddler care, were not sufficient to attract service providers. Cost modeling to examine reimbursement rates and financial incentives for the programs in their QRIS called Delaware Stars, showed that the financial support for providers was insufficient. The State has made adjustments as a result (Stoney, 2015).

System Hubs to Support Supply

Infant-Toddler Family Day Care of Northern Virginia, Inc., is an alliance of 125 family child care providers serving children ages 6 weeks and older and their families. Providers are supported by the hub agency with administrative, marketing, and enrollment services; liability insurance; substitute caregivers; and other related services. Providers also receive program supports, such as monthly support visits, training, opportunities for field trips, and parent education services. The quality in these programs is increasing, and the providers have a tendency to stay in the field longer (Stoney, 2015).


child care giver, child, and womanDepartment for Children and Families, Vermont Agency of Human Services. (2016). Parent child centers [Web page]. Retrieved from

National Center on Child Care Subsidy Innovation and Accountability, Office of Child Care, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2015, April 8–10). Child care financial assistance–system reform: State trends and strategies, How effective TA can and will support states. PowerPoint presented at the Financial Assistance-Office of Child Care Cross-Regional Meeting 2015, Dallas, TX. Retrieved from

Stoney, L. (2015). Financing high-quality center-based infant-toddler care: Options and opportunities. Washington, DC: Early Educator Central. Retrieved from