Abusive Head Trauma
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of fatal head injuries in children younger than 2 years.1 “Abusive head trauma, which includes shaken baby syndrome, is a preventable and severe form of physical child abuse that results in an injury to the brain of a child. Abusive head trauma often happens when a parent or caregiver becomes angry or frustrated because of a child’s crying. It is caused by violent shaking and/or with blunt impact".2
Child care providers have an important role that they can play in adopting prevention strategies to support themselves, other caregivers, parents, and families. These strategies include:
- learning about abusive head trauma
- sharing information on typical child development and self-care
- helping infants and caregivers build relationships
- connecting with community resources (such as home visiting and family support groups)
- identifying sources of household family stress and connecting families to resources in partnership with health and other systems
Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards; Guidelines for Early Care and Education Programs, outlines best practices regarding abusive head trauma. According to Caring for Our Children Standard 188.8.131.52, Preventing and Identifying Shaken Baby Syndrome/Abusive Head Trauma, the goal of this standard is that:
- All child care facilities should have a policy and procedure to identify and prevent shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma.
- All caregivers/teachers who are in direct contact with children, including substitute caregivers/teachers and volunteers, should receive training on preventing shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma; recognizing potential signs and symptoms of shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma; creating strategies for coping with a crying, fussing, or distraught child; and understanding the development and vulnerabilities of the brain in infancy and early childhood.
Children with special needs or health problems are often at increased risk for abusive head trauma. One reason that a child with a disability may be at increased risk is that they are not meeting the developmental milestones that their caregiver is expecting. 2 Children experiencing colic cry for longer periods of time which increases caregiver frustration and the risk of being shaken.
Programs that are exempt from licensing need to meet health and safety requirements for abusive head trauma, as outlined by their state, if they care for a child for whom they receive federal child care financial assistance.
The following pages have information and resources on best practices for states, providers, and families on abusive head trauma and shaken baby syndrome.
- Information for State, Territory, and Tribal Lead Agencies
Resources to support best practices in the development of abusive head trauma standards, policies, and training.
- Information for Child Care Providers
Resources for the identification of and the reduction of the risk of abusive head trauma and support best practice in the development of abusive head trauma policies.
- Information for Families
Resources to be shared with families to support caregiving strategies that will reduce the risk of abusive head trauma.
Download the PDF with information for all audiences.
- National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome
The National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome is committed to prevent shaken baby syndrome and promote the well-being of infants generally through the development and implementation of programs, policy, and research; and to support and educate families, caregivers, and professionals.
- The Period for Purple Crying Website
The Period of PURPLE Crying is a way to help parents understand the first months in their baby's life when crying is their main form of communication, which is a normal part of every infant's development. This program is part of the work of the National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome.
- The Period of Purple Crying Information for Dads
This section of The Period of Purple Crying is dedicated to the support of fathers including information on being a military Dad on deployment, becoming attached to their baby, and getting Dads involved.
- Resources on Preventing Abusive Head Trauma from the Child Welfare Gateway
These resources address different strategies and programs to prevent AHT/SBS, including state and local examples.
Mayo Clinic. (n.d). Shaken baby syndrome. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/shaken-baby-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20366619